Carbohydrates do not make you fat or shorten lifespan. Research shows that the “Blue Zones” -- the areas in the world where people live the longest -- tend to follow a higher-carb diet. All health problems are associated with the overcomsumption of carbs, especially with respect to your activity levels. While you don't need to remove carbohydrates entirely, your best bet is to experiment with how many carbs you can tolerate, so you can understand what works best for your body.
Carbs have been called toxic and dangerous, and there's a general belief that you should avoid them. And yet, carbs can be an essential and healthy part of your diet, and research suggests they are your body’s performed energy source.
So how did we become terrified of carbs? The problem starts with the food industry and a shift towards larger portions, tons of sugar, and addictive food qualities that "trick" you into consistently over-eating.
To help figure out the role carbs can play in your life, we’ve tried to simplify the debate to give you some much needed dietary sanity.
Simple vs. Complex Carbs
The cells in your body prefer to use carbs to fuel your day-to-day functions. Carbs can help fuel activities like lifting weights or running, and they are also used to power your brain, heart, and lungs. Your body prefers carbs so much that if you remove them from your diet, your body then converts other sources of food (like fat or protein) into carbs and simple sugars.
Carbohydrates are made up of sugar molecules, which your body breaks down into fuel, especially when you’re working hard. Sugars, starches, and fiber are all forms of carbohydrates.
There are two main types of carbohydrates: simple and complex.
Note: we could discuss fibrous carbs like green veggies, broccoli, sprouts, spinach, cauliflower, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini, but let’s keep the focus on the carbohydrates that tend to cause the most confusion. Few people ever worry about eating too many vegetables (a good "problem" to have), so let's not complicate the conversation.
Simple carbohydrates are the reason most people think carbs are bad. They include things such as table sugar, syrup, and soda. Most of the time, these carbs should be limited because -- unfortunately -- a diet built around candy, cake, beer, and cookies is not the foundation of a healthy lifestyle. (But, as you'll discover, they don't need to be avoided entirely, either.)
Complex carbohydrates are a combination of fibrous carbs and starch. They include options like oatmeal, apples, and vegetables.
For a long time, people believed that complex carbohydrates were the only carbs you should ever eat, but that isn’t always the case. You see, your body takes both complex and simple carbohydrates and tries to break them down into usable energy to fuel your muscles and organs.
The Carb Risk
Remember, carbohydrates are not inherently dangerous. So what’s the real risk of eating carbs? If you look at the science, there's a difference between a "biological" risk and a "behavioral" risk. Here’s how to differentiate the two.
Biological Risk: Carbs are not bad, but if eating too many carbohydrates causes your blood sugar levels (and insulin) to rise -- and, more importantly, stay elevated -- then you might need to curb your carb intake. Or, if you have chronically high insulin levels (as determined by your doctor), eating carbohydrates can put you more at risk for weight gain or other health problems. In these scenarios, eating a higher-carb diet is not the ideal for your body.
Behavioral Risk: If the foods you select make you crave more of those same foods (think about how one cookie turns into an entire sleeve of cookies), then you’ll need to limit the carbs that trigger addictive-type behaviors.
Solving for a behavioral risk is hard to fix but simple to diagnose: if you know that it’s difficult for you to limit how many sugary foods you eat, then you’ll want to manage how many simple carbs are a part of your diet (we know, easier said than done).
The biological risk is a little harder to figure out. For years, people thought that the glycemic index was the solution. The glycemic index (GI) attempts to classify foods by how quickly they break down and how much they boost blood sugar levels.
Many people argued that following a low-GI diet was a superior way of eating because it would keep your blood sugar under control. It’s a beautiful concept, but the glycemic index is an inexact science. For instance, Twix bars and chocolate cake happen to have a low glycemic index, which is reason enough to understand that a low-GI diet isn't bulletproof. Then, when researchers compared low-GI to higher-GI diets, they found that the low-GI approach did not lead to more weight loss.
If you want to drop carbs from your diet, that’s your choice, and it might be a good fit. But, it's not a guaranteed weight-loss plan. Research published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition compared a lower carb diet to a higher carb diet. When calories were equal, the scientists found that low-carb diets had no significant difference in fat loss, metabolism, or muscle retention. Translation: calories are still king, so it's more important to choose a plan that helps you control calories, rather than assuming the removal of carbs will instantly make you drop weight and keep it off.
Your Carb Plan
Ultimately, personal preference, activity levels, and how your body reacts to carbs are what will determine how you structure your diet. There's no "hard rule," but there are guidelines that can make it easier to find out what works for you.
In general, try to include 1-2 servings of vegetables at every meal, and then combine that with a palm-sized portion of starchy carbs. You can do this at every meal to assess your tolerance, and then adjust as you need based on your goal (whether you’re gaining or losing weight). Examples of starchy carbs include a medium-sized potato, a piece of fruit, 1-2 slices of bread, a 6-piece sushi roll, or about ½ cup of oatmeal or rice.
If you’re interested in knowing exactly how much carbs you can eat, you can use the starter formula below if you want to count your macros. To determine the number of carbs that are right for you, first, you’ll need to set the amount of protein and fat in your diet.
Step 1: Figure out Goal Calories
We don’t believe you need to count calories to gain or lose weight, but it is a useful technique, or a helpful guide if you want to try it for a few days to get a better sense of portion sizes.
Here’s how to figure out how many calories you need to eat to reach a goal weight.
Do you workout 1-hour or less per week? If so, multiply your goal weight (say 180 pounds) by 10. Your total goal calories = 1,800
Do you workout 2 hours per week? If so, multiply your goal weight (180 pounds) by 11. Your total goal calories = 1,980
Do you workout 3 hours per week? If so, multiply your goal weight (180 p0unds) by 12. Your total goal calories = 2,160.
For the sake of this example, let’s say you exercise 3 hours per week, for a total of 2,160 calories per day.
Step 2: Figure out Protein
Your goal: Eat 1 gram for every pound of your goal body weight. If you want to weigh 180 pounds, you'll eat 180 grams of protein. One gram of protein is about four calories. So to calculate the calories from protein, multiply the number of grams by 4. In this case, that's 720 calories.
Step 3: Figure out Fat
Your goal: Eat .3 to .5 grams for every pound of your goal body weight. (The variation allows you to decide if you want more or fewer carbs; the lower the number of fat, the more carbs you can enjoy.) If your goal is to weigh 180 pounds, that's 90 grams of fat. And since 1 gram of fat has nine calories, that's 810 calories from fat.
Step 4: Figure out Carbohydrates
Your goal: Add your calories from protein and fat, and subtract that total from your allotted daily calories. So if you have 2,160 calories per day, then after adding up your protein and fat (protein is four calories per gram and fat is nine calories per gram), you’d have 630 calories remaining. You’d then divide that by 4 (because carbs have four calories per gram), and you’d be left with 158 grams of carbohydrates per day to enjoy.